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A building with a central plan, with a dome roof, containing the baptismal font, which is usually beside the church.

Barrel vault

A curved roof in a room or a bay consisting of a semi-cylindrical structure that offloads the weight that it is subjected to onto two walls with parallel springers.


A sculpture carried out on a flat surface, in which the figures emerge from the background with contours with a slight relief. The opposite of this is a high relief.

BaseThe lower section of a building, a column, a pillar, which has a support function.
Basilica eng.

A large Roman-Imperial building with a rectangular layout, with the internal space divided up by rows of columns. It was used as a court and trade center, with an apse (even double) that amplified the phonic emission of the voice and with large windows to guarantee sufficient light at assemblies. The roof was made of lightweight wooden trusses, thus eliminating the need for the so-called external or buttress arches, which were necessary for stone roofs, as in medieval Gothic cathedrals.  The church took on this motif for the first buildings of worship that had a rectangular layout, divided up lengthways by columns or pillars into three or five naves, ending up with a semi-circular area called the apse, which was occasionally cut up transversally by a transept, which was useful for the liturgical action and significant for giving the layout of the building the shape of a Latin cross.


A space between four pillars that support a cross vault or between two support elements (columns, pillars, walls). It is part of the nave of the church.


A suspended architectonic element with various shapes that protrudes from the wall and that acts as a form of support for a beam or cornice, small arches, roof etc…


A generally quadrangular shaped constructive element with a spur or rampant arch shape, which counteracts the pushes of the vaults and arches from the outside of the building


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